A new law banning Sunday trading in Poland has come into effect, with supermarkets and other retail outlets closed.
The legislation, sought by the Solidarity trade union and supported by the Catholic Church, will limit shopping to the first and last Sundays of the month.
Next year trade will only be allowed on the last Sunday of the month before a wider ban halts shopping on most Sundays from 2020.
The Solidarity trade union said it introduced the change to ensure retail staff get free time at the weekends.
The liberal opposition and other critics argue it will limit job opportunities for students and affect cross-border shopping from the Baltic states, Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia.
The law applies to foreign-owned hypermarket chains as well as other non-Polish outlets.